Artists and researchers both know that collaboration is crucial to their work. So when UNLV Marjorie Barrick Museum of Art Interim Director Alisha Kerlin satisfied Rochelle and Dustin Hines, 2 neuroscience teachers from the department of psychology, they understood that this was a possibility for severe interdisciplinary cross-pollination.
Kerlin interviewed the professors about the paintings of Julie Oppermann, an American artist whose optically deceptive paintings are currently on view at the museum. Oppermann had one biographical information that made her especially interesting– she received a master’s degree in neuroscience prior to she ended up being a painter.
I observed that Julie Oppermann’s paintings are physically difficult to take in. At certain seeing ranges, I feel destabilized from the eyeballs down. I’ve heard students say that the work makes them nauseous.
Rochelle: I definitely felt the destabilization and lightheadedness. From one angle I was certain there was depth to the work, but as I altered my perspective I was shocked to see that it was an illusion. The neuroscience of understanding entered your mind. I thought of how the eye and brain extract and separate color and form/motion (black and white) details to process it initially. Eventually, the brain is then tasked with stitching this info back together to create our visual reality. Our experience of a visual impression in Oppermann essentially emerges from a harshness in this latter process of understanding.
Does it amaze you to discover that she has a master’s in neuroscience from UC Berkley?
Dustin: Not. It makes me really delighted to hear this! It is clear that she comprehends this separation between color and form/motion vision, and has actually taken advantage of features that will develop these results. In neuroscience, we call the form/motion vision processing system the dorsal stream (“where” system), and the color vision processing system the forward stream (“what” system).
Rochelle: The dorsal stream offers us with vision for action and governs our ability to react rapidly to visual scenarios, and visually direct the motions we make. The dorsal stream processing is unconscious. In contrast, the forward stream provides us with visual truth, and supplies us with a rich and detailed perception of the world, which is a conscious procedure. Illusions take advantage of our unconscious system, and utilize it to feed information into our mindful system.
I strongly think that a person can benefit from seeing art in person. What you see in print or on a screen will not provide you the complete experience, particularly in Oppermann’s case. Dustin: The reason they are most effective in person returns to what Rochelle stated about changing her perspective. Having the ability to move around the work and take different perspectives enables more details for our visual system, exposing the “trick” and enabling the illusion to be appreciated by our mindful system.
What would you say to someone (perhaps a researcher, or a non-art major) who generally would not wander into the museum trying to find abstract painting?
Rochelle: We are starting to value the crossways between arts and sciences a growing number of, and in teaching it works to make use of the arts to assist relay hard ideas about visual and auditory perception. This enables a trainee to have an experience, then consider exactly what their own brain may have done to process or develop that experience. I frequently find myself talking about the visual charm of data that we collect in the laboratory. A Nobel Prize-winning microscopist, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, was in truth an artist, and his drawings of brain cells that he saw through the microscope have been a significant contribution to neuroscience. Oppermann’s work is also a great example of how arts and sciences can sustain one another.
It’s effective that these paintings are still images but develop an active action in the viewer’s body. These are visceral artworks that are certainly not static.
Dustin: Absolutely. She skillfully taps into the juxtaposition of luminance and contrast borders in cautious mix with equiluminace that can produce the impression of motion or depth. Movement detection happens to be a crucial system for our survival, perhaps more so in an evolutionary sense, since discovering the motion of our bodies in space or the motion of animals and objects in our instructions helps ensure our security. Ultimately, our nerve system integrates not only the drawn out elements of visual scenes, however all types of sensory, homeostatic, rewarding, determined, and emotional info to create our total experience.
Visual art can powerfully stimulate emotional responses, such as joy or elation. I enjoy hearing how people react to artworks, and there is naturally no ideal way to respond. The variety of reactions have been from the feeling puzzled to feeling satisfaction.
Rochelle: Processing the world around us, including our visual world, is hardwired to produce sensations of pleasure in the brain. The pleasure-producing reward system is believed to exist to promote behaviors that improve our survival.
Dustin: Understanding the visual world use the benefit system since making sense of exactly what is going on around us enhances our opportunities of success. Visual stimuli, and specifically illusions, develop preliminary confusion for our brain, however having the ability to deal with the confusion by recognizing features triggers enjoyment centers of the brain. Acknowledgment of patterns, or subject matter, and so on, can be extremely pleasing due to the fact that it helps us to comprehend how to act.